Review and Build Report: MAKE Rovera 2WD Arduino Robot Kit, Part 1

I picked up the MAKE Rovera 2WD Arduino Robot Kit the other week and have been putting it together and checking it out.  The kit comes with the book Make an Arduino-Controlled Robot that has the directions for construction and multiple projects (e.g., line following, edge detection, obstacle avoidance, etc.).  There’s also a very similar 4 wheel drive kit that uses the same book, Arduino, motor controller, etc. 


There’s code you can download from the net for each project, and the author walks through and explains the code in the included book.  I like that the author talks about good practices like modular development in the book, and explains some of the nuances of using global variables with tabs when using the arduino IDE.

The kit’s primary components are the robot chassis, motors, and wheels from DF Robot, the Adafruit Motor Control Shield kit, a servo and Ping ultrasonic sensor, some IR sensors, and an Arduino Leonardo.

The kit assembles easily (but see “issues” below).  Certainly it takes less than a day, and most of that is soldering the components and connectors on the motor shield.  As someone who hasn’t done extensive soldering, I can say that soldering the parts on the motor shield kit was not difficult.


The physical assembly was even easier.  I wasn’t sure of the best way to connect the sensors to the motor shield.  The kit provides ribbon cable and some connectors (and the wrong type of prototype board that doesn’t match the strip board in the instructions).  I decided the best way was to put together some 3 wire connectors using pre-crimped wires and 3×1 connector housings, as shown below:

Cables I substituted to connect the IR sensors.

Cables I substituted to connect the IR sensors.

At first I thought I’d just use some PWM cables I had lying around, but the positive and negative terminals are flipped between the IR sensors and the slots on the motor control shield, so you need to make sure to wire the connectors correctly, however you do it.

The Leonardo arduino board can be a bit ornery when first loading drivers.  I had no trouble on one of my PCs, but I had to manually load the drivers on an old laptop (even though it’s running Windows 7.  That’s not any fault of the kit, there’s a lot of discussion on line about this issue with the Leonardo board.

Once you have the robot assembled for the first time, you can run a simple test program that spins the robot.  That verifies the basic functions.  The next program in the book, the HelloRobot program, fully tests out the motor controller,

The assembled robot.  Just need to connect the IR sensors and it's ready to test.

The assembled robot. Just need to connect the IR sensors and it’s ready to test.

IR sensors, etc., so it’s a good test that you put everything together correctly.  I’m happy to report that once I fixed plugging the IR sensors into the wrong port (my bad), everything worked great.

That’s it for the initial build.  Part 2 later, when I start checking out the functionality.

Initial Bottom Line: I recommend this kit, provided you have at least a little hobby experience with electronics and arduinos — a “practiced novice.”  The troubles some have with a reliable Leonardo connection to a PC, the slight discrepancies between the kit as provided and the book, and the minor other inconsistencies in the book may, when combined, make this a frustrating experience if it’s a very first introduction to this world.


  1. Be sure to check the on-line errata.  It’s hard, just from the description in the book, to see how to wire up the trickle charge capability for rechargeable batteries.  You can figure it out, but it’s not clear.
  2. The strip board described in the book to mount the IR sensors for line following wasn’t provided. Instead, another style of PC board was provided that doesn’t really work as intended.
  3. Read the book before building. In some sections, it begins to describe what seems like the next step, then after that step, points out it’s actually easier to do things in a different order!  That’s annoying.
  4. Not the kit maker’s fault, but it would have been great if the +, -, and signal pins on the IR sensor were in the same order as the female headers used on the Adafruit motor shield, since then you could just use a standard PWM cable to connect them.  Instead, the + and – are switched.  Instead, the kit provides ribbon cable, which, with some soldering, can be used.  I’m going to use some pre-crimped wires and crimp housings.
  5. It’s clear that the code, kit, and book went through some revisions during development, and not everything lines up. For example, one part of the HelloRobot section in the book says the robot will spin counter-clockwise when you trigger either IR sensor, while a page or two later, it says it will turn away from the triggered sensor (clockwise for left sensor, counterclockwise for right).  The latter is correct.  For software issues, when in doubt, read the actual code.
  6. If you’re looking to do navigation other than line following, you’ll need to be adding more to the robot.  There are no wheel encoders even for basic dead reckoning, so the robot has no idea where it is.  I’ve already played around with a home built robot that used a compass and wheel encoders, but no infrared sensors for edge detection or line following, so this was fine with me, but it’s something to be aware of.

Struct and functions when using the Arduino IDE

As anyone reading this blog probably knows, the Arduino IDE simplifies a number of programming for an embedded environment and hides some of the required C / C++ material. This can make life a lot easier, but it can also cause problems, especially when you step out to do more complex things. I got bit by one of those earlier today. Since I eventually found a post to the work around, I thought I’d post it here.

In my robot code, I”ve defined a struct called coord that holds two doubles, which are the x and y coordinates for whatever I need (e.g., the position of the robot, the next waypoint, etc.

Today, I wanted to compute the distance from the ray defined by the previous and next waypoint and the current position of the vehicle, so that the error could be fed into a PID controller. I figured it would be easy to pass the parameters as coord types. BUT, this turns out to be trickier than it should be with the Arduino. Unless the structs are defined in a .h file, there are problems with their scope. A work-around is documented by Alexander Brevig on the Arduino Playground: Struct Resource for Arduino.

An unseasonal post: Automating Halloween Props

This post is more suited to Halloween then the coming Yule, but I finally got around to writing it, and besides, as I write this, there’s only 327 days left to next Halloween!  There are several options for controlling animated props, including prop controllers specifically designed for this purpose.  A recent addition to the market is the MonsterShield, an Arduino-based prop controller with open source code you can modify.  I haven’t tried one out, but thought it was work a mention.  In my props, I just use a handy micro-controllers, such as an Arduino, along with sensors such as a PIR.  The PIR (or pressure mat, or whatever sensor you choose) sends a signal to the microcontroller when it detects someone, and then your microcontroller can trigger a whole sequence of pre-programmed actions.  I had two such props in my Halloween display this year.  The first is a classic “Monster in a Box“.  I use a PIR sensor to detect when someone comes near.  When this happens,a Teensy sends out an output to a Power Switch Tail to turn on the power to a wall wart that delivers 12V power to the windshield wiper motor, as well as to a green light inside the box.  I use a Power Switch Tail so that I don’t have to worry about any safety issues dealing with house current directly.  The motor sequence has several stops and stop in it, of differing lengths, so that the action is more natural.  After it triggers, there’s a dead time, so that it doesn’t keep restarting while trick-or-treaters are standing in front watching it.

Closed Monster in a box, showing the box with the PIR and Arduino that triggers the box.

Inside view of the Monster in a Box, showing the wiper motor and irregular cam.


The other prop where I use a PIR and an Arduino is my scarecrow skeletons, who do a little talking and singing routine when triggered.  Here, an Arduino controls two Cowlacious audio boards that in turn drive the servo boards that control the jaw servo and lights in the skulls (also from Cowlacious).  I’ve had the audio boards for some time.  They work fine, and have a wide host of control options (including the ability to be triggered directly from a PIR).  However if I was remaking this prop, I’d probably just wire up some really cheap mp3 players. The video shows the two skeletons doing their routine. Sorry for the quality, my video editor is refusing to save the edited version.